Which Terpenes help to ease Chronic Pain Symptoms?

Chronic pain is more than a physical condition that causes discomfort. It is a complex condition that can make a significant impact on daily life and everyday activities.

A study carried out in 2021 recorded that 30% of the world’s population is affected by Chronic Pain significantly impacting their quality of life (Cohen et al., 2021). While conventional medications like analgesics (painkillers) such as paracetamol, tramadol , ibuprofen, etc can provide relief, they often come with a host of side effects and risks such as dizziness, constipation and in certain cases increased cardiovascular risks. However, there's growing interest in natural alternatives, with medical cannabis emerging as a promising option. 

The symptoms of Chronic Pain   

Properly understanding the symptoms of this condition is the first step towards managing Chronic Pain more effectively.

Persistent Pain

The main feature of this condition is the regular if not constant discomfort that can last for weeks or even for years. This pain can either be localised to specific areas on the body or can be widespread, and affects multiple regions of the body.


Constantly having to manage the pain can drain energy levels quite quickly. This can be both physically an mentally exhausting, leaving patients feeling lethargic and unable to make the most out of their time. 

Mood changes

Dealing with Chronic Pain can take a toll on mental health, leading to mood changes such as irritability, anxiety, or depression. The constant struggle with pain can affect one's outlook on life and overall well-being.

Increased Sensitivity

Individuals with Chronic Pain often experience heightened sensitivity to touch, pressure, or temperature changes. Even activities that are typically painless may trigger discomfort.

Limited Mobility

Chronic Pain can restrict movement and mobility, making it challenging to perform daily tasks or participate in activities once enjoyed. This limitation can further contribute to feelings of frustration and isolation.

Cognitive Impairment

Some people with Chronic Pain may experience cognitive difficulties, such as trouble concentrating, memory problems, or difficulty processing information. This "brain fog" can interfere with work, school, or social interactions.

Natural Alternative for Pain Medication

Commonly Used Pain Medication

Pain management stands as a vital component of patient comfort and well-being. Modern medicine offers an array of solutions, among these, a few stand out as the most commonly prescribed and relied upon. 


Known as acetaminophen, is perhaps the most widely recognized over-the-counter pain reliever. It's renowned for its effectiveness in treating mild to moderate pain and reducing fever.However, it's crucial to use paracetamol responsibly, as excessive doses can lead to liver damage. Patients should adhere strictly to recommended dosages and avoid combining it with other medications containing paracetamol to prevent accidental overdose.

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

Including ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin, are another class of widely used pain relievers. In addition to reducing pain, NSAIDs possess anti-inflammatory and antipyretic (fever-reducing) properties, making them effective for conditions characterised by inflammation, such as arthritis. 

While NSAIDs are generally safe for short-term use, prolonged or excessive use can lead to gastrointestinal issues such as ulcers and bleeding, as well as kidney problems. 


Potent pain relievers reserved for moderate to severe pain that does not respond adequately to other medications. Common opioids include morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, and fentanyl. 

Despite their efficacy, opioids carry a significant risk of addiction, dependence, and overdose. Long-term use can lead to tolerance, requiring higher doses to achieve the same level of pain relief.

Natural Alternatives for Chronic Pain

Amidst evolving attitudes towards pain management, medical cannabis has emerged as a compelling alternative to traditional analgesics. Unlike many pharmaceutical counterparts, medical cannabis offers a distinct advantage: it is not as addictive and does not pose the same risks of dependency or overdose. While modern analgesics like opioids carry a significant burden of addiction potential and adverse effects, medical cannabis presents a promising avenue for pain relief with a lower risk.

The Endocannabinoid System:

At the heart of medical cannabis's therapeutic effects lies the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a complex network of receptors and neurotransmitters found throughout the body. The ECS plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes, including mood, appetite, pain sensation, and immune function. When we consume medical cannabis, its active compounds, known as cannabinoids, interact with the ECS, modulating its activity and producing a range of effects.

Cannabinoids: Nature's Therapeutic Agents

The cannabis plant contains over 100 different cannabinoids, each with its own unique effects on the body. Two of the most well-known cannabinoids are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC is primarily responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis, while CBD is non-psychoactive and has been lauded for its potential therapeutic properties.

THC interacts with the ECS by binding to cannabinoid receptors, particularly CB1 receptors found in the brain and nervous system. This interaction can lead to feelings of euphoria, pain relief, and relaxation. CBD, on the other hand, doesn't directly bind to cannabinoid receptors but influences the ECS in other ways, such as enhancing the body's natural production of endocannabinoids or modulating receptor activity. CBD has been studied for its potential to reduce inflammation, alleviate anxiety, and improve sleep quality.

The Entourage Effect: Synergistic Healing

One of the most intriguing aspects of medical cannabis is the entourage effect, a phenomenon in which the various compounds in the plant work together synergistically to enhance therapeutic efficacy. Research suggests that cannabinoids, terpenes, and other phytochemicals found in medical cannabis may amplify each other's effects, leading to greater symptom relief than isolated compounds alone. For example, certain terpenes found in medical cannabis, such as myrcene and limonene, have been shown to enhance the absorption of cannabinoids and modulate their effects.

As our understanding of medical cannabis continues to evolve, so too does its potential as a therapeutic agent. By harnessing the power of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, researchers are uncovering new ways to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life for millions of people worldwide. Whether it's easing Chronic Pain, reducing anxiety, or enhancing sleep, medical cannabis offers a natural alternative for those seeking relief from a variety of ailments. As always, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional before incorporating medical cannabis into your wellness routine to ensure safe and effective use.

Terpenes to reduce inflammation and other symptoms of Chronic Pain 

1.  Myrcene:  

Myrcene is often used within a treatment pathway for patients with Chronic Pain conditions. This terpene is found to significantly reduce the inflammation between joints. This provides an analgesic (pain relieving) response for these conditions as it helps cannabinoids in crossing the blood- brain barrier and then binds to the receptors present in the endocannabinoid system. Myrcene is also known to provide a sedative effect, which can result in patients feeling more relaxed and calm. This can help assist patients that are unable to sleep due to being in constant pain.

The terpene myrcene is known to have a musky, earthy aroma and is present in the highest concentration in the cannabis plant. Besides cannabis, the terpene myrcene is found in other plants such as eucalyptus, lemongrass and even in fruits like mangoes. 

2. Linalool:

Linalool has a beneficial role to play in the treatment of Chronic Pain as it promotes antinociception, which is the body’s natural response to blocking pain receptors. This terpene also assists in inducing relaxation without the occurrence of significant side effects. Linalool also has certain antimicrobial properties that help protect the body against infections. 

Linalool is characterised with having a sweet, woody aroma and is known for its cleansing and sedative effects. Apart from cannabis, this terpene is found in other plants like coriander, lavender and basil to name a few.

3. Beta-caryophyllene:

In treating Chronic Pain, Beta-caryophyllene boosts the formation of natural endorphins (hormones that alleviate pain). This terpene also demonstrates certain antioxidant properties, by reducing the oxidative stress on the body that usually occurs from diseases like cancer, which is often an underlying cause for Chronic Pain.  Beta-caryophyllene functions as an anti-inflammatory agent and is beneficial for patients that experience swelling from edema (accumulation of fluid in body tissue) that usually occurs as a result of the Chronic Pain conditions. 

Beta-caryophyllene is known to have a spicy, peppery aroma and is also found in spices such as cloves and cinnamon.

4. Pinene:

Pinene demonstrates analgesic properties (pain relieving), anti-anxiety and possesses anti-inflammatory properties and helps in reducing swelling and pain that comes with any Chronic Pain condition.  Another notable feature of pinene is its anti- tumour activity. When pinene couples with PAC (chemotherapy medication) it helps increase apoptosis (cell death) and cell cycle arrest. 

The terpene pinene as its name suggests has a characteristic pine aroma and is the most common terpene found in the natural world. In addition to cannabis and pine trees, pinene is also found in orange peels, rosemary and parsley. 

Medical Cannabis and Chronic Pain

While medical cannabis cannot cure Chronic Pain, it can offer significant relief from its symptoms, thanks to the therapeutic properties of its terpenes. By choosing the right cannabis strain with the appropriate terpene profile, individuals with Chronic Pain can effectively manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. However, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional before incorporating medical cannabis into your Chronic Pain treatment regimen.

At Cantourage Clinic, we understand the challenges faced by individuals living with Chronic Pain. Our team of experts are dedicated to providing personalised treatment plans tailored to your specific needs, including the use of medical cannabis for symptom management. Contact Cantourage Clinic today to learn more about how cannabis and its terpenes can help you live a fuller, more comfortable life with Chronic Pain. Considering medical cannabis but unsure if you qualify? Take our FREE eligibility checker.


Medicinal Properties of Cannabis and it’s Terpenes for Pain: 10.1111/head.13345

Chronic Pain statistic:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00393-7 

Side effects of present pain medication: 10.3344/kjp.2010.23.2.99

Medical Cannabis as a Substitute for Prescription drugs:


Benefits of myrcene: 10.3389/fnut.2021.699666


Benefits of Linalool:  10.3389/fpsyt.2021.583211

Benefits of Beta- caryophyllene: 10.3390/nu12113273

Benefits of Pinene: 10.3390/biom9110738

About Cantourage Clinic Ltd

Cantourage Clinic is a CQC registered clinic, combining a team of qualified specialist physicians, nurses and educators with cannabis industry professionals; joining forces with the sole focus of providing care and excellence for patients wishing to explore cannabinoid therapies.

For more information on how Cantourage clinic could help, click here for more information.

Cantourage Clinic offer specialist consultations for the following conditions.

- Pain

- Psychiatry

- Neurology

- Gastroenterological

- Oncology

- Palliative Care


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